.
 

Maha Satipatthana Sutta 1

The Great Discourse on the Foundations of Mindfulness

with notes by Michael Potter on a 14 tape commentary by Bhikkhu Bodhi

NAMO TASSA BHAGAVATO ARAHATO SAMMASAMBUDDHASSA

HOMAGE TO THE BLESSED ONE, THE WORTHY ONE
THE FULLY-ENLIGHTENED BUDDHA

Thus have I heard.

At one time, the Blessed One was living in Kurus, where there was a market town of the Kurus, named Kammasadamma. There the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus," and the bhikkhus replied to him, "Venerable Sir." And the Blessed One spoke as follows:

This is the only way2, bhikkhus, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the disappearance of pain and grief3, for reaching the Noble Path4, for the realization of Nibbana, namely, the Four Foundations of Mindfulness. 5

What are the four?

Herein [in this teaching], bhikkhus6, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body7, ardently8, clearly comprehending9 and mindful10, removing covetousness and grief in the world11; he dwells contemplating the feeling in the feelings, ardently, clearly comprehending and mindful, removing covetousness and grief in the world; he dwells contemplating the consciousness in the consciousness, ardently, clearly comprehending and mindful, removing covetousness and grief in the world; he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas, ardently, clearly comprehending and mindful, removing covetousness and grief in the world.
 

1. THE CONTEMPLATION OF THE BODY IN THE BODY

Mindfulness of Breathing

And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell contemplating the body in the body? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to a secluded place, sits down cross-legged, keeps his upper body erect, and directs mindfulness towards the object of meditation. Ever mindful, he breathes in, ever mindful he breathes out.

Breathing in a long breath, he knows, "I breathe in long"; breathing out a long breath, he knows, "I breathe out long."

Breathing in a short breath, he knows, "I breathe in short"; breathing out a short breath, he knows, "I breathe out short." 12

"Making clear the entire in-breath body, I shall breathe in," thus he makes effort [literally, he trains himself]; "making clear the entire out-breath body, I shall breath out," thus he makes effort. 13

"Calming the gross in-breath [literally, body-conditioned object], I shall breathe in," thus he makes effort; "calming the gross out-breath, I shall breathe out," thus he makes effort. 14

As a skillful turner [of a lathe] or his apprentice, making a long turn, knows, "I make a long turn," or making a short turn, knows, "I make a short turn," just so the bhikkhu, breathing in a long breath, knows, "I breathe in long"; breathing out a long breath, he knows, "I breathe out long." Breathing in a short breath, he knows, "I breathe in short"; breathing out a short breath, he knows, "I breathe out short." "Making clear the entire in-breath body, I shall breathe in," thus he makes effort; "making clear the entire out-breath body, I shall breathe out," thus he makes effort. "Calming the gross in-breath, I shall breathe in," thus he makes effort; "calming the gross out-breath, I shall breathe out," thus he makes effort.

Thus he dwells contemplating the body in the body internally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body externally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body both internally and externally. 15

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the breath-body, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the breath-body, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the breath-body. 16

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is breath-body only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness. 17

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body.
 

The Postures of the Body 18

And again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu knows, "I am going," when he is going; he knows, "I am standing," when he is standing; he knows, "I am sitting," when he is sitting; he knows, "I am lying down," when he is lying down, or just as his body is disposed so he knows it. 19

Thus he dwells contemplating the body in the body internally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body externally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body both internally and externally. 20

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the body. 21

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is the body only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness. 22

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body. 23
 

Mindfulness with Clear Comprehension 24

And again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu in going forward and in going back, [he] applies clear comprehension; in looking straight ahead and in looking away from the front, [he] applies clear comprehension; in wearing the three robes, and in carrying the bowl, [he] applies clear comprehension; in eating, drinking, chewing and savoring, [he] applies clear comprehension; in obeying the calls of nature, [he] applies clear comprehension; in walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking, speaking, and in keeping silent, [he] applies clear comprehension. 25

Thus he dwells contemplating the body in the body internally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body externally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body both internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the body.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is the body only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body.
 

Reflection on the Repulsiveness of the Body

And again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects upon this very body, upward from the soles of his feet, downward from the tips of his hair, enclosed by the skin and full of diverse impurities, thus, "There are in this body

head hair, body hair, nails, teeth, skin                                                         5

flesh, sinews (nerves), bones, marrow, kidneys                                          5

heart, liver, intestines, spleen, lungs                                                           5

bowels, stomach, undigested food, feces, brain 26                                      5

bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat                                                             6

tears, lymph, saliva, nasal mucus, oil of the joints, urine. 27                      6

As if there were a double-mouthed provision bag filled with various kinds of grain such as hill paddy, paddy, green gram, cowpea, sesame, husked rice, a man with sound eyes28, having opened it, should examine it thus, "This is hill paddy, this is paddy, this is green gram, this is cowpea, this is sesame, this is husked rice." just so, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects upon his very body, upward from the soles of his feet, downward from the tips of his hair, enclosed by the skin and full of diverse impurities, thus, "There are in this body head hair, body hair [see above list] ... urine." 29

Thus he dwells contemplating the body in the body internally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body externally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body both internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the body.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is the body only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body.
 

Reflection on the Material Elements

And again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects upon this very body just as it is placed or disposed, with regard to its primary elements, "There are in this body the earth element, the water element, the fire element, and the air element."

As a skillful butcher and his apprentice, having slaughtered a cow and divided it into portions, were sitting at the junction of four highways, just so, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects upon this very body just as it is placed or disposed, with regard to its primary elements, "There are in this body the earth element, the water element, the fire element, and the air element." 30

Thus he dwells contemplating the body in the body internally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body externally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body both internally and externally. 31

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the body.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is the body only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body.
 

The Nine Cemetery Contemplations

i. And again, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu sees a body one day dead, or two days dead, or three days dead, swollen, blue, and festering, discarded in the charnel ground, he then applies [this perception] to his own body, "Truly, this body too is of the same nature. It will become like that and will not go beyond that nature."

Thus he dwells contemplating the body in the body internally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body externally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body both internally and externally. 32

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the body.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is the body only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body. 33

ii. And again, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu sees a body discarded in the charnel ground, being devoured by crows, by hawks, by vultures, by herons, by dogs, by leopards, by tigers, by jackals, being devoured by various kinds of worms, he then applies [this perception] to his own body, "Truly, this body too is of the same nature. It will become like that and will not go beyond that nature."

Thus, he dwells contemplating the body in the body internally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body externally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body both internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the body.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is the body only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body.

iii. And again, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu sees a body discarded in the charnel ground, reduced to a skeleton, held together by tendons, with some flesh adhering to it, he then applies [this perception] to his own body, "Truly, this body too is of the same nature. It will become like that and will not go beyond that nature."

Thus, he dwells contemplating the body in the body internally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body externally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body both internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the body.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is the body only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body.

iv. And again, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu sees a body discarded in the charnel ground, reduced to a skeleton, held together by tendons, blood-smeared, fleshless, he then applies [this perception] to his own body, "Truly, this body too is of the same nature. It will become like that and will not go beyond that nature."

Thus, he dwells contemplating the body in the body internally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body externally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body both internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the body.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is the body only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body.

v. And again, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu sees a body discarded in the charnel ground, reduced to a skeleton, held together by the tendons, without flesh and blood, he then applies [this perception] to his own body, "Truly, this body too is of the same nature. It will become like that and will not go beyond that nature."

Thus he dwells contemplating the body in the body internally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body externally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body both internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the body.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is the body only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body.

vi. Again, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu sees a body discarded in the charnel ground, reduced to loose bones scattered in all directions - here bones of the hand, there bones of the foot, shin bones, thigh bones, pelvis, spine and skull - he then applies [this perception] to his own body, "Truly, this body too is of the same nature. It will become like that and will not go beyond that nature.

Thus he dwells contemplating the body in the body internally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body externally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body both internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the body or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the body.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is the body only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body.

vii. And again, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu sees a body discarded in the charnel ground, reduced to bleached bones of shell-like color, he then applies [this perception] to his own body, "Truly, this body too is of the same nature. It will become like that and will not go beyond that nature."

Thus he dwells contemplating the body in the body internally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body externally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body both internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the body.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is the body only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body.

viii. And again, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu sees a body discarded in the charnel ground, reduced to bones more than a year, lying in a heap, he then applies [this perception] to his own body, "Truly, this body too is of the same nature. It will become like that and will not go beyond that nature."

Thus he dwells contemplating the body in the body internally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body externally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body both internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the body.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is the body only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body.

ix. And again, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu sees a body discarded in the charnel ground, reduced to rotten bones, crumbling to dust, he then applies [this perception] to his own body, "Truly, this body too is of the same nature. It will become like that and will not go beyond that nature."

Thus he dwells contemplating the body in the body internally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body externally, or he dwells contemplating the body in the body both internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the body, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the body.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is the body only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body.
 

2. THE CONTEMPLATION OF FEELINGS

And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell contemplating the feelings in the feelings?

Here, bhikkhus, when experiencing a pleasant feeling, the bhikkhu knows, "I experience a pleasant feeling"; when experiencing a painful feeling, he knows, "I experience a painful feeling"; when experiencing a neutral feeling, he knows, "I experience a neutral feeling"; when experiencing a pleasant worldly feeling, he knows, "I experience a pleasant worldly feeling"; when experiencing a pleasant non-worldly feeling, he knows, "I experience a pleasant non-worldly feeling"; when experiencing a painful worldly feeling, he knows, "I experience a painful worldly feeling"; when experiencing a painful non-worldly feeling, he knows, "I experience a painful non-worldly feeling"; when experiencing a neutral worldly feeling, he knows, "I experience a neutral worldly feeling"; when experiencing a neutral non-worldly feeling, he knows, "I experience a neutral non-worldly feeling." 34

Thus he dwells contemplating the feelings in the feelings internally, or he dwells contemplating the feelings in the feelings externally, or he dwells contemplating the feelings in the feelings both internally and externally. 35

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the feelings, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the feelings, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the feelings. 36

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is feeling only.." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness. 37

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the feelings in the feelings.
 

3. THE CONTEMPLATION OF CONSCIOUSNESS 38

And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell contemplating the consciousness in the consciousness?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu knows the consciousness with lust as consciousness with lust, the consciousness without lust as consciousness without lust, the consciousness with hate as consciousness with hate, the consciousness without hate as consciousness without hate, the consciousness with delusion as consciousness with delusion, the consciousness without delusion as consciousness without delusion, the constricted consciousness39 as constricted consciousness, the scattered consciousness as scattered consciousness, the consciousness that has become great as consciousness that has become great40, the consciousness that has not become great as consciousness that has not become great, the surpassable consciousness as surpassable consciousness, the unsurpassable consciousness as unsurpassable consciousness, the concentrated consciousness as concentrated consciousness, the unconcentrated consciousness as unconcentrated consciousness, the freed consciousness41 as freed consciousness, the unfreed consciousness as unfreed consciousness.

Thus he dwells contemplating the consciousness in the consciousness internally, or he dwells contemplating the consciousness in the consciousness externally, or he dwells contemplating the consciousness in the consciousness both internally and externally. 42

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the consciousness, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the consciousness, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the consciousness. 43

Or his mindfulness is established as "there is consciousness only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the consciousness in the consciousness.
 

4. THE CONTEMPLATION OF THE DHAMMAS 44

And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas?
 

The Five Hindrances

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas in the five hindrances. And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas in the five hindrances?

Here, bhikkhus, when sense-desire is present in him, the bhikkhu knows, "There is sense-desire in me," or when sense-desire is absent in him, he knows, "There is no sense-desire in me." He also knows the reason why the arising of non-arisen sense-desire comes to be; he also knows the reason why the abandoning of arisen sense-desire comes to be; and he also knows the reason why non-arising in the future of the abandoned sense-desire comes to be. 45

When ill will is present in him, he knows, "There is ill will in me," or when ill will is absent in him, he knows, "There is no ill will in me." He also knows the reason why the arising of non-arisen ill will comes to be; he also knows why the abandoning of arisen ill will comes to be; and he also knows the reason why non-arising in the future of the abandoned ill Will comes to be. 46

When sloth and torpor are present in him, he knows, "There are sloth and torpor in me," or when sloth and torpor are absent in him, he knows, "There are no sloth and torpor in me." He also knows the reason why the arising of non-arisen sloth and torpor comes to be; he also knows the reason why the abandoning of arisen sloth and torpor comes to be; and he also knows the reason why non-arising in the future of the abandoned sloth and torpor comes to be. 47

When restlessness and remorse are present in him, he knows, "There are restlessness and remorse in me," or when restlessness and remorse are absent in him, he knows, "There are no restlessness and remorse in me." He also knows the reason why the arising of non-arisen restlessness and remorse comes to be; he also knows the reason why the abandoning of arisen restlessness and remorse comes to be; he also knows the reason why non-arising in the future of the abandoned restlessness and remorse comes to be. 48

When doubt is present in him, he knows, "There is doubt in me," or when doubt is absent in him, he knows, "There is no doubt in me." He also knows the reason why the arising of non-arisen doubt comes to be; he also knows the reason why the abandoning of arisen doubt comes to be; and he also knows the reason why non-arising in the future of the abandoned doubt comes to be. 49

Thus he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas internally, or he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas externally, or he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas both internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the dhammas, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the dhammas, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the dhammas.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there are dhammas only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas in the five hindrances.
 

Five Aggregates of Clinging 50

And again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas in the five aggregates of clinging. And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas in the five aggregates of clinging?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu knows, "This is material form, this is the arising or cause of material form, this is the passing away or cause of passing away of material form. This is feeling, this is arising or cause of feeling, this is the passing away or cause of passing away of feeling. This is perception, this is the arising or cause of perception, this is passing away or cause of passing away of perception. These are mental formations, this is the arising or cause of mental formations, this is the passing away or cause of passing away of mental formations. This is consciousness, this is the arising or cause of consciousness, this is the passing away or cause of passing away of consciousness." 51

Thus he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas internally, or he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas externally, or he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas both internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the dhammas, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the dhammas, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the dhammas.52

Or his mindfulness is established as "there are dhammas only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness. 53

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas, in the five aggregates of clinging.
 

The Six Internal and the Six External Sense-Bases 54

And again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas in the six internal and the six external sense-bases. And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas in the six internal and the six external sense-bases?

Herein, bhikkhus a bhikkhu knows the eye, knows the visible forms and also knows the fetter55 that arises dependent on both.

He also knows the reason why the arising of the nonarisen fetter comes to be, he also knows the reason why the abandoning of the arisen fetter comes to be, and he also knows the reason why non-arising in the future of the abandoned fetter comes to be. 56

He knows the ear, knows the sounds, and also knows the fetter that arises dependent on both. He also knows [for continuation see above paragraph on the eye].

He knows the nose, knows the smells, and also knows the fetter that arises dependent on both. He also knows [for continuation see above paragraph on the eye].

He knows the tongue, knows the flavors, and also knows the fetter that arises dependent on both. He also knows [for continuation see above paragraph on the eye].

He knows the body, knows the tactile objects, and also knows the fetter that arises dependent on both. He also knows [for continuation see above paragraph on the eye].

He knows the mind, knows the dhammas, and also knows the fetter that arises dependent on both. He also knows [for continuation see above paragraph on the eye].

Thus he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas internally, or he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas externally, or he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the dhammas, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the dhammas, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the dhammas.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there are dhammas only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas in the six internal and in the six external sense-bases.
 

The Seven Factors of Enlightenment 57

And again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas in the seven factors of enlightenment. And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas in the seven factors of enlightenment.

Here, bhikkhus, when the enlightenment-factor of mindfulness58 is present in him, the bhikkhu knows, "There is the enlightenment-factor of mindfulness in me," or when the enlightenment-factor of mindfulness is absent in him, he knows, "There is no enlightenment-factor of mindfulness in me."59 He also knows the reason why the arising of the nonarisen enlightenment-factor of mindfulness comes to be; he also knows the reason why the perfection through cultivation of the enlightenment-factor of mindfulness comes to be. 60

When the enlightenment-factor of the investigation of dhammas61 is present in him, he knows, "Here is the enlightenment-factor of investigation of dhammas in me," or when the enlightenment-factor of the investigation of dhammas is absent in him, he knows, "There is no enlightenment-factor of the investigation of dhammas in me." He also knows the reason why the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment-factor of the investigation of dhammas comes to be62; he also knows the reason why the perfection through cultivation of the enlightenment-factor of the investigation of dhammas comes to be.

When the enlightenment-factor of energy is present in him, he knows, "There is the enlightenment factor of energy in me," or when the enlightenment-factor of energy is absent in him, he knows, "There is no enlightenment-factor of energy in me." He also knows the reason why the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of energy comes to be; he also knows the reason why the perfection through cultivation of the enlightenment-factor of energy comes to be.

When the enlightenment-factor of rapture is present in him, he knows "There is the enlightenment-factor of rapture in me," or when the enlightenment-factor of rapture is absent in him, he knows, "There is no enlightenment-factor of rapture in me." He also knows the reason why the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment-factor of rapture comes to be; he also knows the reason why the perfection through cultivation of the arisen enlightenment-factor of rapture comes to be.

When the enlightenment-factor of tranquility is present in him, he knows, "There is the enlightenment-factor of tranquility in me," or when the enlightenment-factor of tranquility is absent in him, he knows, 'Mere is no enlightenment-factor of tranquility in me." He also knows the reason why the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment-factor of tranquility comes to be: he also knows the reason why the perfection through cultivation of the arisen enlightenment factor of tranquility comes to be.

When the enlightenment-factor of concentration is present in him, he knows, "There is the enlightenment-factor of concentration in me," or when the enlightenment-factor of concentration is absent in him, he knows, "There is no enlightenment-factor of concentration in me." He also knows the reason why the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment-factor of concentration comes to be; he also knows the reason why the perfection through cultivation of the arisen enlightenment-factor of concentration comes to be.

When the enlightenment-factor of equanimity is present in him, he knows, "There is the enlightenment-factor of equanimity in me," or when the enlightenment-factor of equanimity is absent in him, he knows, "There is no enlightenment-factor of equanimity in me." He also knows the reason why the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment-factor of equanimity comes to be; he also knows the reason why the perfection through cultivation of the arisen enlightenment factor of equanimity comes to be.

Thus he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas internally, or he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas externally, or he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas both internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the dhammas, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the dhammas, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the dhammas.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there are dhammas only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas in the seven factors of enlightenment.
 

The Four Noble Truths

And again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas in the Four Noble Truths.

And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas in the Four Noble Truths?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu knows, according to reality, "This is suffering"; he knows, according to reality, "This is the origin of suffering"63; he knows, according to reality, "This is the cessation of suffering"64; he knows, according to reality, "This is the path leading to the cessation of suffering."65

And what, bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of Suffering? Birth is suffering, aging is suffering, death is suffering, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and excessive despair are suffering; association with the disliked is suffering; separation from the liked is suffering; not to get what one wishes, that also is suffering. In brief, the five aggregates of clinging are suffering.

What, now, is birth? The birth of beings belonging to this or that order of beings, their being born, their origination, their conception, their springing into existence, the manifestations of the aggregates, the acquisition of the sense-bases. This, bhikkhus, is called birth.

And what, bhikkhus, is aging? The aging of beings belonging to this or that order of beings, their old age, decrepitude, breaking of teeth, greyness of hair, wrinkling of skin, the failing of their vital force, the wearing out of their sense faculties. This, bhikkhus, is called aging.

And what, bhikkhus, is death? The departing and vanishing of beings out of this or that order of beings, their destruction, disappearance, dying, death, the completion of their life period, dissolution of the aggregates, the discarding of the body, the destruction of the controlling faculty of the vital principle. This, bhikkhus, is called death.

And what, bhikkhus, is sorrow? The sorrow of one afflicted by this or that loss, touched by this or that painful thing, the sorrowing, the sorrowful state of mind, the inner sorrow, the inner deep sorrow. This, bhikkhus, is called sorrow.

And what, bhikkhus, is lamentation? The wailing of one afflicted by this or that loss, touched by this or that painful thing, lament, wailing and lamenting, the state of wailing and lamentation. This, bhikkhus, is called lamentation.

And what, bhikkhus, is pain? The bodily pain and bodily unpleasantness, the painful and unpleasant feeling produced by bodily contact. This, bhikkhus, is called pain.

And what, bhikkhus, is grief? The mental pain and mental unpleasantness, the painful and unpleasant feeling produced by mental contact. This, bhikkhus, is called grief.

And what, bhikkhus, is excessive distress? The distress of one afflicted by this or that loss, touched by this or that painful thing, excessive distress and the state of excessive distress, this, bhikkhus, is called excessive distress.

And what, bhikkhus, is suffering which is association with the disliked? Whatever undesirable, disagreeable, unpleasant objects there are visible, audible, odorous, tasteable, and tangible; or whoever those wishers of harm, wishers of discomfort and wishers of non-release from bonds are, it is that being together with them, coming together with them, fraternizing with them, and being mixed with them. This, bhikkhus, is called suffering which is association with the disliked.

And what, bhikkhus, is suffering that is separation from the liked? Whatever desirable, agreeable, pleasant objects there are visible, audible, odorous, tasteable, and tangible; or whoever those wishers of welfare, wishers of benefit, wishers of comfort, and wishers of release from bonds are -- mothers, fathers, brothers, sisters, friends, colleagues, relatives, or blood relations, it is that not being together with them, not coming together with them, not fraternizing with them, and not being mixed with them. This, bhikkhus, is called suffering that is separation from the liked.

And what, bhikkhus, is "not to get what one wishes, that also is suffering?" In being subject to birth such a wish arises, "Oh, that we were not subject to birth! Oh, that no birth would come to us!" But this, indeed, cannot be attained by mere wishing. This is "not to get what one wishes, that also is suffering."

In being subject to aging such a wish arises, "Oh, that we were not subject to aging! Oh, that no aging would come to us!" But this, indeed cannot be attained by mere wishing. This is "not to get what one wishes, that also is suffering."

In being subject to sickness such a wish arises, "Oh, that we were not subject to sickness! Oh, that no sickness would come to us!" But this, indeed, cannot be attained by mere wishing. This is "not to get what one wishes, that also is suffering."

In being subject to death such a wish arises, "Oh, that we were not subject to death! Oh, that no death would come to us!" But this, indeed, cannot be attained by mere wishing. This is "not to get what one wishes, that also is suffering."

In being subject to sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and excessive distress such a wish arises, "Oh, that we were not subject to sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and excessive distress! Oh, that no sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and excessive distress would come to us!" But this, indeed, cannot be attained by mere wishing. This is "not to get what one wishes, that also is suffering."

And what, bhikkhus, is "in brief, the five aggregates of clinging are suffering?" They are the aggregate of clinging to material form, the aggregate of clinging to feeling, the aggregate of clinging to perception, the aggregate of clinging to mental formations, and the aggregate of clinging to consciousness. This, bhikkhus, is called, "in brief, the five aggregates of clinging are suffering."

This, bhikkhus, is called the Noble Truth of Suffering.

And what, bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering? It is that craving which gives rise to further rebirth and, bound up with pleasure and lust, finds ever fresh delight, now here' now there -- to wit, the sensual craving, the craving for existence, and the craving for non-existence.

And where, bhikkhus, does this craving, when arising, arise, and, when settling, settle? Whatever in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing, therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

What in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing? Eye in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Ear in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Nose in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Tongue in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Body in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Mind in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Visible forms in the world are delightful things, pleasurable things; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Sounds in the world are delightful things, pleasurable things; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Smells in the world are delightful things, pleasurable things; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Tastes in the world are delightful things, pleasurable things; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Tangible objects in the world are delightful things, pleasurable things; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Dhammas in the world are delightful things, pleasurable things; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Eye-consciousness in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Ear-consciousness in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Nose-consciousness in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Tongue-consciousness in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Body-consciousness in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Mind-consciousness in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Eye-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Ear-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Nose-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Tongue-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Body-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

Mind-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The feeling born of eye-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The feeling born of ear-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The feeling born of nose-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The feeling born of tongue-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The feeling born of body-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The feeling born of mind-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The perception of visual forms in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The perception of sounds in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The perception of smells in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The perception of tastes in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The perception of touches in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The perception of dhammas in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The volition concerning visual forms in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The volition concerning sounds in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The volition concerning smells in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The volition concerning tastes in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The volition concerning touches in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The volition concerning the dhammas in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The craving for visual forms in the world is a delightful things, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The craving for sounds in the world is a delightful things, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The craving for smells in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The craving for tastes in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The craving for touches in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The craving for the dhammas in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The thought for visual forms in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The thought for sounds in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The thought for smells in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The thought for tastes in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The thought for touches in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The thought for dhammas in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The discursive thought for visual forms in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The discursive thought for sounds in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The discursive thought for smells in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The discursive thought for tastes in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The discursive thought for touches in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

The discursive thought for dhammas in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when arising, arises and, when settling, settles.

This, bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering.

And what, bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering? It is the total extinction by removing of, forsaking of, discarding of, freedom from, and non-attachment to that same craving.

And where, bhikkhus, is this craving, when being abandoned, abandoned, and when does this craving, when ceasing, cease? Whatever in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing, therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

What in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing? Eye in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Ear in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Nose in the world is a delightful thing, a, pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Tongue in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases,

Body in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Mind in the world is a delightful tiring, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Visual forms in the world are delightful things, pleasurable things; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Sounds in the world are. delightful things, pleasurable things; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases,

Smells in the world are delightful things, pleasurable things; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when, ceasing, ceases.

Tastes in the world, are delightful things, pleasurable things; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases,

Tangible objects in the world are delightful things, pleasurable things; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Dhammas in the world are delightful things, pleasurable things; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Eye-consciousness in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Ear-consciousness in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Nose-consciousness in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases,

Tongue-consciousness in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Body-consciousness in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Mind-consciousness in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Eye-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Ear contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Nose-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Tongue-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Body-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

Mind-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The feeling born of eye-contact in the world is a delightful, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The feeling born of ear-contact in the world is a delightful, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The feeling born of nose-contact in the world is a delightful, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The feeling born of tongue-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The feeling born of mind-contact in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The perception of visual forms in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The perception of sounds in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The perception of smells in the world is a delightful thing a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The perception of tastes in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The perception of touches in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The perception of dhammas in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The volition concerning visual forms in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The volition concerning sounds in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The volition concerning smells in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The volition concerning tastes in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The volition concerning touches in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The volition concerning the dhammas in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The craving for visual forms in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The craving for sounds in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The craving for smells in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The craving for tastes in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The craving for touches in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The craving for dhammas in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The thought for visual forms in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The thought for sounds in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The thought for smells in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The thought for tastes in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The thought for touches in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The thought for dhammas in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The discursive thought for visual forms in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The discursive thought for sounds in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

The discursive thought for smells in the world is a delightful thing, a pleasurable thing; therein this craving, when being abandoned, is abandoned and, when ceasing, ceases.

This, bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering.

And what, bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of the Path leading to the Cessation of Suffering? It is simply the Noble Eightfold Path, namely, Right Understanding, Right Thought, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, Right Concentration.

And what, bhikkhus, is Right Understanding? Understanding of suffering, understanding of the origin of suffering, understanding of the cessation of suffering, understanding of the path leading to the cessation of suffering. This, bhikkhus, is called Right Understanding.

And what, bhikkhus, is Right Thought? Thought associated with renunciation, thought associated with absence of ill will, thought associated with absence of cruelty. This, bhikkhus, is called Right Thought.

And what, bhikkhus, is Right Speech? Abstaining from false speech, abstaining from slanderous speech, abstaining from harsh speech, abstaining from frivolous speech. This, bhikkhus, is called Right Speech.

And what, bhikkhus, is Right Action? Abstaining from killing beings, abstaining from taking what is not given, abstaining from sexual misconduct. This, bhikkhus, is called Right Action.

And what, bhikkhus, is Right Livelihood? Here, bhikkhus, a noble disciple having abandoned wrong livelihood, makes a living by means of Right Livelihood. This, bhikkhus, is called Right Livelihood.

And what, bhikkhus, is Right Effort? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu engenders wishes, makes effort, arouses energy, exerts the mind, and strives for the non-arising of evil, unwholesome states that have not arisen; engenders wishes, makes effort, arouses energy, exerts the mind, and strives for the abandoning of evil, unwholesome states that have arisen; engenders wishes, makes effort, arouses energy, exerts the mind, and strives for the arising of wholesome states that have not arisen; engenders wishes, makes effort, arouses energy, exerts the mind, and strives for the stabilizing, for the collation, for the increase, for the maturity, for the development, for the perfection through cultivation of wholesome states that have arisen. This, bhikkhus, is called Right Effort.

And what, bhikkhus, is Right Mindfulness? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body, ardently, clearly comprehending, and mindfully, removing covetousness and grief in the world. He dwells contemplating the feeling in the feelings, ardently, clearly comprehending, and mindfully, removing covetousness and grief in the world. He dwells contemplating the consciousness in the consciousness, ardently, clearly comprehending, and mindfully, removing covetousness and grief in the world. He dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas, ardently, clearly comprehending, and mindfully, removing covetousness and grief in the world. This, bhikkhus, is called Right Mindfulness.

And what, bhikkhus, is Right Concentration? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, quite secluded from sense pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, attains and dwells in the first jhana accompanied by initial application, accompanied by sustained application, with rapture and happiness born of seclusion; with the non-appearance of initial application and sustained application, he attains and dwells in the second jhana, which is internal, accompanied by confidence, which causes singleness of mind to grow, which is without initial application and sustained application, which is born of concentration and which is with rapture and happiness; with the overcoming of rapture as well as of initial application and sustained application, he dwells in equanimity, is mindful and clearly comprehending, experiences happiness with his body and mind. He attains and dwells in the third jhana, on account of which the noble ones announce, "With equanimity and mindfulness, he dwells in happiness." With the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, he attains and dwells in the fourth jhana, which has neither pain nor pleasure and has purity of mindfulness caused by equanimity. This, monks, is called Right Concentration.

This, bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of the Path leading to the Cessation of Suffering.

Thus he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas internally, or he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas externally, or he dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas both internally and externally.

He dwells contemplating the origination factors in the dhammas, or he dwells contemplating the dissolution factors in the dhammas, or he dwells contemplating both the origination and dissolution factors in the dhammas.

Or his mindfulness is established as "there are dhammas only." And that mindfulness is established to the extent necessary to further knowledge and mindfulness.

Not depending on (or attached to) anything by way of craving and wrong view, he dwells.

Nor does he cling to anything in the world of the five aggregates of clinging.

Thus too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the Dhamma in the dhammas in the Four Noble Truths.
 

Assurance of Attainment

Verily, bhikkhus, whoever is practicing these Four Foundation of Mindfulness for seven years, he can expect one of two results - highest knowledge here and now, or, if there still be a remainder of clinging, the state of non-returner.

Let alone seven years, bhikkhus, should any person practice these Four Foundations of Mindfulness for six years .... five years .... four years .... three years .... two years .... for one year, then he may expect one of two results - highest knowledge here and now, or, if there still be a remainder of clinging, the state of non-returner.

Let alone one year, bhikkhus, should any person practice these Four Foundations of Mindfulness for seven months .... six months .... five months .... four months .... three months .... two months .... a month .... half-a-month, then he may expect one of two results - highest knowledge here and now, or, if there still be a remainder of clinging, the state of non-returner.

Let alone half-a-month, bhikkhus, should any person practice these Four Foundations of Mindfulness in this manner for seven days, he may expect one of two results - highest knowledge here and now, or, if there still be a remainder of clinging, the state of non-returner.

Because of this, it has been said: "This is the only way, bhikkhus, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the disappearance of pain and grief, for reaching the Noble Path, for the realization of nibbana, namely, the Four Foundations of Mindfulness."

This the Blessed One said. Glad in their hearts, the bhikkhus welcomed the words of the Blessed One.


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